Passenger movement between India and Nepal reflects the historical, cultural and religious ties between the two countries, based on the India-Nepal Treaty of Peace and Friendship of 1950. The treaty allows for free movement of goods and passengers across the open border. Further, the Regulation for Passenger Traffic between the two countries as well as the BBIN Motor Vehicles Act govern passenger/vehicular movement between the two countries.
Bilateral passenger movement between India and Nepal is influenced by various factors such as economic opportunities, tourism potential, social and religious ties, etc. Roadways connect the two countries through multiple ports of entry and exit. Road transport is the most common and convenient mode of travel between India and Nepal, as it offers flexibility, affordability and accessibility. There are several designated crossing points along the border that provide immigration and customs clearance for passengers travelling on foot or by vehicles.
To improve the infrastructure and security at the various ports of entry/exit, India and Nepal have agreed to develop Integrated Check Posts (ICPs) at major border crossings, to provide modern facilities and amenities for smooth and efficient movement of people and goods. However, there are still some roadblocks both at the regulatory and operational levels which hamper seamless movement of passengers across the border.
In order to mitigate the existing challenges and facilitate bilateral passenger movement, the passenger vehicle movement can be directed through the ICPs. This would potentially improve operational feasibility and efficiency, leading to reduced logistics costs as well as enhanced bilateral trade and people-to-people cooperation. However, this requires improving connectivity and understanding the perception of the masses using these land ports, as they may have different preferences, expectations and apprehensions regarding movement through the ICPs.
In the above context, the principal aim of this study has been to assess the existing vehicular and passenger movement – for travellers formally going to the hinterland of both countries (covered under the BBIN MVA, comprising 17 routes and 18 check points) – and to explore the possibilities of utilising the ICPs on both sides as integrated facilities to facilitate the same. The study has covered four ICPs on the Indian side i.e., ICP Raxaul, ICP Jogbani, ICP Sonauli and ICP Rupaidiha, and has tried to explore the existing routes of travel, modes of travel, stakeholders, operational aspects, regulatory framework, etc. 
The study has also gathered perception-based feedback from various stakeholders to explore the possibilities of redirecting the existing traffic to the ICPs. Special focus has been on understanding the modus operandi of vehicular movement into the hinterland of both countries, including permits, regulations, charges, insurance, vehicle tracking, etc. with a view to outline the challenges as well as gauge future requirements in the area.