This study – being conducted on behalf of the Land Ports Authority of India – aims to comprehensively analyse the perception of passengers commuting between India and Nepal via land ports, with a specific focus on the Integrated Check Posts (ICPs). The research involves understanding the current movement of passengers, their purpose and frequency of visit, as well as the apprehensions and benefits they might face if the movement occurs through the ICPs. Additionally, the study strives to assess the perception of government stakeholders and other relevant experts through stakeholder mapping and one-to-one interviews with both Indian and Nepalese counterparts.

Further, the study entails a thorough literature review of the current legal framework, treaties and agreements to understand the status and possible frameworks of passenger movement between India and Nepal. This involves analysing legal documents and treaties such as the Indo-Nepal Friendship Treaty (1950) and Treaty of Transit (2006).

Based on the findings from stakeholder interactions, perception analysis and literature review, the study aims to provide recommendations on enabling and streamlining passenger movement via the ICPs for operational ports while ensuring the same for upcoming ports. This will be accomplished through identification of national and international best practices as well as assessment of existing ICPs during field visits. The study also endeavours to highlight the possible challenges and opportunities in shifting passenger movement to the ICPs.